Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL), Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP) & Johne's in Sheep...there is NO cure!
STOP THE SPREAD OF DISEASE
Buyers Beware...Don't Buy Infected Sheep...Ask For Flock Health History. A CLOSED herd is when NO NEW SHEEP COME IN, and stock NEVER GO OUT (leaving the property) for shows, exhibits, breeding, ect. Wasting diseases, along with others, can be latent in coming out. By the time they present symptoms the animal can be out of quarantine. If seller is taking animals off their property while returning them from shows, breeding, ect. then previous test results are void. After returning them to their property with possible disease exposure, new tests should be run. Leaving the property and being returned would also void closed herd status.
Breeders/Sellers...Stop The Spread of CL, OPP, Johne's & Other Diseases by Not Selling Infected Sheep. If your testing and culling positive animals and selling animals with negative test results, there may be risk of disease through exposure to the positive animals. False negatives and false positives are a consideration as well. A false negative could be a carrier sheep. When using the CL vaccine, it is not a cure for CL. Animals receiving the CL vaccine will test positive, so buyers need to know this. They will not get an accurate test result. Since the CL vaccine is used on both positive and negative animals for CL, TESTING is only a tool and should be USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH HERD HEALTH HISTORY since there can be false negatives and false positive results, that's where herd health history is vital, if symptoms have presented themselves in any of these diseases, that should be disclosed to the buyer.
ANYONE can take samples and send them into a lab. The labs have instructions that need to be followed. Because of the expense of testing whole herds, random sampling is less expensive and being used in some cases while only a few sheep are being tested. If your unsure, have your vet take the sample(s) on the seller's property. If more tests are required due to age, keep the animal(s) in quarantine until all test results are completed and results are conclusive.
I have always believed since my research began over 25 years ago...spreading manure from Johne's infected livestock (especially dairy herds) on land used for grazing or forage production adds risk of spreading Johne's. I now have a source to confirm that...Johne's Information Center
Kaya Dorper & White Dorper Stud...(Australia) Health monitoring issue as of February 29, 2012 regarding Johne's. Read their "Our Situation" and "Our Plan" also for current news and updates. Australia has some excellent articles and references on sheep and diseases and also testing. There is a new fecal test coming out sometime later this year in 2012. From the article I read, out of Australia, this test is more accurate/specific and will have results in 10 days. Australia Sheep Council ... Flock Herd Case Notes ...
Oregon State University Sheep Center Disease Outbreaks, Johne's and Q Fever...November 21, 2012...Go to bottom of this page to read those articles..USDA Recalls are below those articles.
How much do you know about your meat animals? Breeders: Do not assume you don't have CL because you are selling meat animals and the meat plant has not told you your sheep have CL. Please read this 9 Code of Federal Regulations Animal Products Section, USDA Food Safety Inspection Service Codes, focusing on CL
Testing Labs For CL, OPP, JOHNE'S:
Washington State Vet School Lab
UC Davis Lab...UC Daivs-How to submit a sample
Pan American Vet Labs
Chronic Wasting Disease Testing National Animal Health Lab Network
APHIS-Approved Laboratories Johne's Disease Serologic Tests
Johne's Disease Organism-Based Methods-Individual Through December 31, 2012
APHIS-Approved Laboratories Johne's Disease Pooling Methods Through December 31, 2012
CL Vaccine: Colorado Serum Company The vaccine is not a cure for CL, it will help protect sheep from CLA...only 58% of the vaccinated sheep were protected against the external form of CLA in a study by Colorado Serum Comapny/90% of the vaccinated sheep were protected from internal form of CLA. That means that 10 sheep out of 100 will not be protected and it only takes one CL internal cyst in one animal to spread the disease. That also leaves 42% not protected from the external form of CLA. Again, you only need one infected sheep for exposure. If you want to test for CL while giving the vaccine, you will get a positive result. Read the statement below from Colorado Serum. The vaccines are to help protect susceptible sheep from CLA. The next statement clearly states the vaccine does not help sheep already infected with CLA abscesses. Since you would get a positive test result using the vaccine, you would not know if the sheep was already infected with CL and the vaccine was being given to lessen the severity of the disease.
"Colorado Serum Company has developed two effective vaccines to help protect susceptible sheep from CLA. With culling sheep with CLA and instituting either of Colorado Serum Company's CLA vaccines, CASE-BAC or CASEOUS D-T , into a flock-health program, the incidence of CLA can be significantly reduced. In a study by Colorado Serum Company, sheep were challenged at 8 months post-vaccination. Ninety percent of vaccinated sheep were protected from the internal form of CLA and 58% were protected against the external form of CLA. For comparison, non-vaccinated control sheep showed 100% infection of both forms of CLA. In animals having CLA lesions after challenge, the vaccinated group averaged about one lesion per animal compared with an average of 36 lesions per sheep in the non-vaccinated control group, demonstrating a significant reduction in disease severity (P<0.001)*"
"Although the vaccine does not help sheep already infected with CLA abscesses, the protection offered to susceptible sheep from exposure to a contaminated environment and undetected infected sheep can amount to a considerable financial gain to the sheep industry"
CL Vaccine Information:
Prevalence of Caseous Lymphadenitis and Usage of Caseous Lymphadenitis Vaccines in Sheep Flocks Australian Veterinary Journal (2003) Volume: 81, Issue: 1-2, Pages: 91-95
Control of Caseous Lymphadenitis in Six Sheep Flocks Using Clinical Examination and Regular ELISA Testing Veterinary Record (2010) Volume: 166, Issue: 12, Pages: 358-362
A Field Trial to Evaluate a Whole Cell Vaccine for the Prevention of Caseous Lymphadenitis in Sheep and Goat Flocks Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph.Canadian journal of veterinary research Revue canadienne de recherche veterinaire (1991) Volume: 55, Issue: 4, Pages: 362-366
The Incidence of Caseous Lymphadenitis in Alberta Sheep and Assessment of Impact by Vaccination with Commercial and Experimental Vaccines Canadian Journal Vet Res.1998 Jan;62(1):38-43.
CL Disease Information
Caseous Lymphadenitis: The Navajo Sheep Project Dr. Lyle G McNeal/Executive Director/ NSP/Sheep & Wool Specialist
Caseous Lymphadenitis: Cheesy Gland in Sheep Belinda Walker, Veterinary Officer Division of Animal Industries/The State of New South Wales 2005 NSW Department of Primary Industries
Caseous Lymphadenitis: Dave Van Metre, DVM, DACVIM Professor / Extension Veterinarian/Colorado State University
CL Disease Technical Information:
Caseous Lymphadenitis in Sheep PUB-MED Articles 145 Articles (20 results per page with 8 pages)
Caseous Lymphadenitis: Bacterialogical and Pathological Studies on Caseous Lymphadenitis in Sheep in Saudi Arabia International Journal of Microbiological Research 2 (1): 28-37, 2011
Small Ruminant Research 2009 Caseous lymphadenitis in sheep flocks of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil
Acute Phase Protein Response in an Experimental Model of Ovine Caseous Lymphadenitis BMC Veterinary Research (2007) Volume: 3, Issue: 3, Publisher: BioMed Central, Pages: 35
CL Toxin found in Brown Recluse spider-other link-Bioformatics
Vaccine: No vaccine available in the United States for OPP
OPP Technical Information:
Development and Validation of an Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus Quantitative PCR Clinical Vaccine Immunology October 2007 vol. 14 no. 10 1274-1278
Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus Capsid Antigen as Found in CD163- and CD172a-Positive Alveolar Macrophages of Persistently Infected Sheep Veterinary Pathology May 2010 vol. 47
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 10 Results per page/807 Results
Testing for Johne's: Johne's Information Center University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine
Washington State Veterinary School Johne's Testing Page
Vaccine: No vaccines are available in the United States
for Johnes disease in sheep but a vaccine is in use in other countries
to try to control the infection
Johne's: OSU/Don't bring in more than you bargained for
Johne's: National Institute for Animal Agriculture
Johne's: Paratuberculosis in Sheep & Goats/Nov 5 2002
Johne's: Ohio State Fact Sheet
Johne's: Ontario Canada
Johne's: Australia JDIP USDA
Johne's: USDA Animal Health & Inspection Services-Testing Labs Listed on site linksohne's: New England LHPA
Johne's: Eradication Program/Australia
Johne's Disease on U.S. Dairy Operations
Johne's Technical Information
Johne's: PubMed.Gov 203 Results
Johne's Vaccine/Not used in USA
CL, OPP, Johne's-Articles
Pathogen Prevention Program By: Joan S. Bowen, DVM
CL, OPP & Johne's Articles - 107 Results listed
Buying Trouble with New Sheep-All about CL, OPP & Johnes by Heather Landin March 2011
Quizlet: Weight Loss Conditions in Sheep & Goats
NATIONWIDE Recall...Class I...Oregon is listed USDA Link